He is an astronomer, mathematician, qualified poet, as well as a naturalist. This great figure was born in the city of As Sulthaniyah, in western Iran, in 1394 AD He himself was the famous grandson of East Lenk as an Asian conqueror. Ulugh Beg then got the mandate from his father to become king in the Samarkand area, Uzbekistan.
In accordance with his enormous interest in science, he later built the city into a center of Muslim culture and science. Even so, astronomy and mathematics are the main fields that are very interesting.
During his reign, he not only conducted research and development in the fields of astronomy and mathematics, but also encouraged the development of science in general. Not only giving formal attention, he also provides facilities. physical facilities and infrastructure. He intervened directly in conducting studies and observations about the stars. In 1420, he built an observatory in Samarkand to observe planets and stars. The observatory is said to be very grand and the traces we can still see until now. In fact, the first observatory in the world was built by a Greek astronomer named Hipparchus (150 BC). However, in the eyes of medieval Muslim astronomers, the concept of the observatory conceived by Hipparcus was far from adequate. As a venue for proof, Muslim scholars then collaborated in building more modern observatories of their time. A number of Muslim astronomers led by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi finally managed to build an astronomical observatory in Maragha in 1259 AD The observatory was equipped with a library with a collection of books that reached 400 thousand titles.
A Western astronomer, Kevin Krisciunas in his article The Legacy of Ulugh Beg revealed that the grandest observatory ever built by Muslim scholars was the Ulugh Beg observatory. The observatory was built by a Mongol ruler who reigned in Samarkand whose full name was Muhammad Taragai Ulugh Beg (1393 – 1449). He was an official who paid high attention to astronomy and science.
However, actual astronomical activity only began to occur in the territory of Ulugh Beg in 1408 AD From the results of his observations and calculations, he and his team also succeeded in correcting calculations that had been made by Roman astronomers such as Ptolemy. The results of their observations are collected, among others, in the book Zij-i Djadid-I Sultani. In addition, there are still many other books that they have written in Arabic.
Some of their work has also been translated by British and French astronomers several hundred years later. This shows that the results of their observations and calculations are very sophisticated for the size of the era at the time, so the data is still very useful until hundreds of years later.
The Ulugh Beg observatory in Samarkand is a giant device designed in such a way as to observe stars in a location that remains on the horizon. This observatory became a pride for the people of Samarkand until hundreds of years after its founder died. Ulugh Beg died in 1449 in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.