Julius Axelrod and Bernard Brodie became the scientists who first discovered paracetamol which could be used as a heat-lowering drug. He is an American biochemist. He was born in New York City, where his parents are immigrants from Poland.

Julius Axelrod graduated as a biology graduate in 1933. His ambition was to actually become a doctor. However, every time a test in medical school, he always failed.

He worked as a laboratory technician at New York University. Then, in 1935, he worked in the New York City Department of Health. Julius Axelrod’s left eye was injured when a bottle containing ammonia exploded in the laboratory where he worked. He then continued his studies, and in 1941, he received a Master’s degree in Science from New York University.

In the 1940s, there were many cases of methemoglobinemia found in people using acetylilide. Methemoglobinemia is an excess of methemoglobin in the blood that can make it difficult for hemoglobin to bind oxygen.

In 1946, the Institute for the Study of Antipyretic Analgesics and Sedative Medicines provided assistance to the New York Department of Health to assess issues relating to analgesic agents. Bernard Brodie and Julius Axelrod were tasked with studying the reasons non-aspirin agents (acetylilides) were associated with methemoglobinemia.

In their article in 1948, Brodie and Axelrod stated that the use of acetylilide could cause methemoglobinemia. They also found that the antipyretic antipyretic analgesic effect was not caused by its acetylide, but due to the metabolic result of acetanilide, namely paracetamol.

That is what led them to conclude that for antipyretic analgesics, acetanilide metabolites should be used directly, namely paracetamol, rather than acetilylide which causes methemoglobinemia.

Julius Axelrod received his doctorate (Ph.D.) in 1955 from George Washington University. After completing his doctoral program, many things have been studied and discovered by this husband from Sally Taub Axelrod.

The peak of his career in the world of research was in 1970. The father of two children received the Nobel Prize with Bernard Katz (Read: Sir Bernard Katz: Nobel Prize-winning Biophysicist) and Ulf von Luler. The Nobel Prize was awarded for his work in discovering the process of release, retrieval, and storage of the neurotransmitter epinephrine and norefinephrine responsible in the nervous system. The results of his research also contributed to explaining how the biological clock works.

His wife died in 1992 when he was 53 years old. Fourteen years later, Julnj Axelrod died on December 29, 2004, leaving behind two sons and three grandchildren.