He was born in Karak, about 10 miles northeast of the Dead Sea (now Jordan) in 630 H / 1233 AD and died in Damascus in 685 H / 1286 M. His full name is Amin al-Dawla Abu al Faraj ibn Muwaffaq al-Din Ya’qub ibn Ishaq Ibn al-Quff, but is often called Ibn al-Quff.
This figure is often referred to as the “Pioneer of Modern Embryology” and is known as one of the great doctors of the thirteenth century AD who was under the protection of the Syrian authorities.
After completing his studies, he was appointed army surgeon who often had to undergo surgery. This is what made him an expert in some types of surgeries.
He spent most of his life in Damascus while teaching medical science. Ibn al-Quff has compiled a number of pamphlets, including an important treatise on surgery and a popular commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates.
He has also authored a number of books covering various aspects of medicine, philosophy and natural sciences. Among the few works he wrote were two of the most influential medical books of Ibn al-Quff, the Book of Al Umda fil Harahat (a book on surgery) and Jami al-Gharadh fi Hifz al-Sihha (a book on embryology and health) .
The book of al Umda itself is one of his books in surgery in the history of medical science. The book explains the problem of surgery in the form of theory and practice. The content is also very detailed and detailed as it is covered in 20 separate chapters. The book is translated into Latin.
The book shows how Ibn al-Quff not only mastered anatomy, diseases, and medicine, as well as certain types of surgical operations. Ibn al-Quff also had a remarkable level of knowledge that demonstrated his level of mastery as a leading physician. Ibn al-Quff also wrote a comprehensive chapter on drugs used to relieve pain during surgery and described how opium (Afune), hyoscine and atropine al-kaloids (al-Banj) were used.
Not only that, Ibn al-Quff was also one of the great Muslim scholars who had found the connection between the heart and the vascular system.
He also first demonstrated the relationship between arterial and venous blood vessels, which describes capillary vessels, and also discusses the heart valve and its function.
This one doctor is also noted as a pioneer who is able to connect the arteries and veins throughout the body.
In the thirteenth century AD, he was able to explain the existence of very small blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins and form tissues. The facts and truths found by Ibn al-Quff were recently discovered in Europe four centuries later. It was an Italian anatomist, Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) who rediscovered Ibn al-Quff’s achievements with the help of a microscope.
Ibn al-Quff was the first to explain the relationship between arteries and veins and blood flow from beginning to end in thin capillaries that “cannot be seen with the naked eye”. The arteries drain blood from the heart to all parts of the body through a network ending in the small arteries from the beginning of the veins.
He was also noted as the doctor who first explained the physiology of heart valves, their numbers and also the clues where and when they were open and closed. “Certain heart valves will open inward to allow blood to enter at the same time to prevent blood flow. While the other valves will open out to allow blood to come out and prevent the entry of blood flow “.
This extraordinary discovery is what makes it so memorable. Europeans could only learn about the thin capillaries and the relationship between veins and arteries only after the discovery of a powerful microscope in the seventeenth century AD. Capillary microscopes themselves were only discovered 400 years later.
In addition to his achievements, Ibn al-Quff has also explained the problems of modern embryology in accordance with those contained in the Qur’an. Ezzat Abouleish, in his Contribution of Islam to Medicine, explained that Ibn al-Quff was the one who pioneered the development of embryology. According to Abouleish, al-Quff’s explanation of embryology and perinatology in his work titled al-Jami proved to be more accurate.