David Hume was born on April 26, 1711 in Edinburgh, Scotland, with the real name David Home. In 1734 he later changed his name to David Hume, because in England it was difficult to say ‘Home’ in the Skodonian way. Hume is the son of Joseph Chrinside and Khaterine Falcorner. However, the father died when he was still a child, so he was raised by his mother.
In terms of education, Hume received a very good education. With the inheritance left by his father, Hume enrolled at the University of Edinburgh to study classical literature. However, Hume was not satisfied with the education he received, so he then decided to leave the university and chose to go to France and become a great philosopher.
In 1734, after several months of busy trading in Bristol, Hume went to La Fleche in Anjon, France. There, he often talked with Jesuits from the College of La Fleche. At that time, he had spent most of his savings for four years there to write his work entitled A Treatise of Human Nature. He completed the work at the age of 26 years.
After the publication of his work in 1744, Hume was appointed chairman of Pneumatics and Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. However, the position was later given to William Cleghorn, after the Edinburgh minister petitioned the city council not to appoint Hume because he was accused of being an atheist. In addition to being an atheist, Hume was also accused of heresy, but he was defended by young clerics of his friends who argued that as an atheist, he was outside the jurisdictional church. Despite the defense, Hume still failed to get a position as chair of philosophy at Glasgow University.
Hume achieved fame as a historian with his work The History of England. The book invites readers to explore the events from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the revolution of 1688. Within a day, the book reached a best seller. In it, Hume surrenders political people as habitual creatures, with the disposition to surrender secretly to the ruling government, unless confronted by uncertain conditions. In his view, only religion can divert others from their daily lives to think about political matters.
Hume’s era was the peak of empiricism. For Hume and other figures, experience (empirea) is more than ratio, because it is a source of knowledge, both internal and external experience. According to Hume, all knowledge is related to human nature. This knowledge is the only solid foundation for other sciences.
For example, John Locke who embodied empiricism. John Locke has a different opinion. According to him, human understanding is influenced by a number of certain basic certainty regarding the external world, the future and causes. These certainties are part of human natural instincts that are not produced or can be prevented by human reason or thought. By natural instinct, it reaches certainty that is possible for human knowledge.
Hume’s theory undermines the theory of rationalism which says that the source of knowledge is through reason or reason. According to Hume, knowledge comes from experiences received by sensory impressions. This gives the understanding that to find a knowledge, we need our own experience. Thus, to prove the truth of knowledge, research in the field, observation and experiment are needed, which are the starting point of human knowledge.
When Hume applied his theory of empiricism in examining the existence of God, he revealed that God, who, according to people, rationalism did already exist in the innate realm, was actually not real. According to him, knowledge of God is something that cannot be proven, because there is no sense of experience that we feel about God. God’s problem is a matter related to metaphysics. The discussion in metaphysics cannot be approached with evidence that demands something empirical and real.
Far from destructive criticism of metaphysics and theology, Hume provides constructive analysis that opens up new possibilities while making us aware of the need to base our theory on the facts of experience. Hume offers opportunities and challenges to build your own theory by trying to get as close as possible to experience.
Hume adalah filsuf yang terkenal di seluruh dunia, yang berpendapat bahwa pengetahuan hanya bisa diperoleh melalui pengalaman. Ia juga memberikan beberapa sumbangan pemikiran ekonomi ketika disiplin ilmu ini baru saja berkembang. Sumbangan-sumbangan pemikiran tersebut berkaitan dengan dampak uang terhadap ekonomi dan perdagangan antarnegara. Hume meninggal pada usia 65 tahun (tahun 1776) di kota kelahirannya, Edinburgh, Skotlandia.
Hume is a famous philosopher around the world, who believes that knowledge can only be obtained through experience. He also made several contributions to economic thinking when these disciplines had just developed. These thought contributions are related to the impact of money on the economy and trade between countries. Hume died at the age of 65 (in 1776) in his hometown, Edinburgh, Scotland.